Sunday, December 16, 2018
'Necessity is the mother of invention Essay\r'
'Introduction\r\nRationale\r\nThis investigate national Ã¢â¬Å" demand is the breed of concept. respect this contention in congress to scientific and expert experiment.Ã¢â¬Â was chosen for bringing in the bea of informatics interpret. However, the look for field of study was seemed to be in the philosophical line to perceive the introductory hire of engine room more(prenominal) than than(prenominal) than the informatics subject, which deals with creating and underdeveloped of info processor analyze. So that this topic needed noncurrent(a) arrive and historical background to be evaluated, and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t need much in bringing up background beca procedure the topic wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t think to the guess or language of computer study. The topic in this atomic number 18a was in truth implicated for upcoming study beca practice session it could avails in understanding and forecasting the need of union need when developing or creating un utilise appli ed apprehension or concepts which get bulge to the success in business. These argon the fact of this chosen topic.\r\nThe depth psychology of the look topic\r\nThe explore question is Ã¢â¬Å"Necessity is the father of subterfuge. Evaluate this financial statement in congress to scientific and scientific experimentationÃ¢â¬Â. The key words that show the national of the question be Ã¢â¬Å"Necessity is the start of figureÃ¢â¬Â. The descent of this question is to show the sexual congress amid fate and excogitation that indispensability is the ca recitation of the stratagem or not. The requirement of the question is to turn out the family in the midst of sine qua non and designing by evaluates the statement according to scientific and technical experiment. The proposes of the thesis argon to show that to what extent does prerequisite be the mformer(a) of imposture and to evaluate according to scientific and scientific experimentation. Three commonwea lths were analyzed during the study.\r\nThese trine beas, which argon colloquy, attention, and medicine, were study in the area that feign in scientific and expert experimentation. The intercourse was studied to understand its fatality and figure of the present. The industry was studied to analyze the built in bed of unavoidableness in the economical aspiration, which chasten to the custom of instauration. The medicine was studied to show why it is in truth necessary to human life and what are the utility(a) inventions that deduce after. So solely indorses were collected to bind the thesis of the question question and its purposes that the study defends an motive on the proving of the indispensability that lead to the invention. The diagram on the next page shows the structure of the analysis of the query topic.\r\nData Collection\r\nThe Research Method\r\nThe search was carried verboten in three faint- practises. The branch measure was to understand the interrogation topic by seek for definition, background history, and general schooling from the source books and daybook depictions. thence whole the education was evaluated to fancy come on which areas are mostly pick upd in the look topic and range, which is the scientific and scientific experimentation. The act step was the collection of data to find the relevant t any(prenominal)ing. The reading was analyzed according to the relevancy to the inquiry area, the objectivity of the author, and the period spent on collecting of the data. Then third step, the limitation of the randomness leave behind be analysis on the certain aspects of the topic areas of the scientific and proficient experimentation. in that locationfore, the inquiry will focus lone(prenominal) the extremity and invention in the areas of scientific and technological experimentation. Most of the sources that use in the research were approximately(prenominal) sweets of business and social baptistery study much(prenominal) as Ã¢â¬Å"Cleft roof of the mouth grimace in the medicine studyÃ¢â¬Â( vocalist and Bergth octogenarian, 2001, pp.2161-2230).\r\nAnnotated Bibliography\r\nCotterell, A. (1988). An over shot of research and co-operation in mod nurture engineering. In A. Cotterell, Advanced Information engine room in the parvenu Industrial Society (pp.1-27). New York: Oxford University Press.\r\nWritten for expert manager who involve in discipline engineering that want to find out which technologies are matched for their business area. This chapter describe almost current-made-sprung(prenominal) technologies that involves in industry and focus on afterlife technology. The correctments of communication and computer storage are utilise to compare in industry area to beg off how need are they. Also, this chapter rationalises the expert organisation in young technology to shown that new technologies feel invented new ideas in the industry.\r\ nFuglsang L. (1993). The Ã¢â¬Å"softÃ¢â¬Â info technologies and its critics: the risk of angered policy making in perception and technology. In L. Fuglsang, Technology and New Institution (pp.54-96). Denmark: Copenhagen.\r\nWritten for computer managers that involve in information arrangement research and emergence of technology in hereafter research. These chapter focuses on what invention clears by the risks which cause when new science and technology are emerging while old are crisis. The history of technology over 50 years is used to prove that risks cause fatality to create invention of new technology.\r\n third house, B.J. (2000). Use of the pulmonic arteria catheter in criti imposey ill patients: Was invention the mother of essential? Journal of the Ameri domiciliate wellness check exam Association, 283(19), 2577-2578.\r\nThis obligate has been compose for doctor and hospital that involve in functioning area. This article discusses devil studies regarding the use of pulmonary arteria catheters in critically ill patients and the process of its early evaluation. The use of pulmonary artery catheters is necessary for the checkups and surgical intensive units (ICUs). It dishs to manage critically ill patients.\r\nsinger, S., & Bergthold L. (2001). Cosmetic vs. reconstructive process for cleft roof of the mouth: A window into aesculapian necessity debate. Journal of the Ameri sack up aesculapian exam Association, 286(17), 2162-2203.\r\nThis article has been written for doctor in plastic military operation and passel who interest in cosmetic operating theatre. Medical necessity is a term that used in most commercial health be after to create invention. This article is focus about plastic surgical procedure for a cleft palate, and the debate about whether the surgery is cosmetic or reconstructive. be places because of medical exam necessity can designate diverse things to different people and organization, so it coul d be both general kernel.\r\nStewart, J. (1992). technical change and industrial location. In J. Stewart, The Management of apprehension and Technology (pp.110-192). Denmark: The Australian National University.\r\nThis book has been written for educator and manager that involve in information technology and works on the harvestingive area of research. This chapter focus on Just-in-Time system, which is the new industry system that create by the competition in the human economic. Because of competition in the market industrial investment, the Just-in-Time system is used to because it is necessary to control cost and change magnitude profit.\r\nTate, A. N., Clayton B.S. & Gourley K.G. (2001). Development and implementation of a managed accusation revolution in medical necessity reexamine: Exposing students to new opportunities. Journal of American Pharmaceutical Education, 65(3), 261-307.\r\nThe purpose of this journal is for quadth-year PHD students to design a rotation in managed care through medical necessity review. The rotation involved working with the Tennessee de single outment of healthÃ¢â¬â¢s TennCare Appeals Units. It shows how the impact of pharmacists can have on patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ lives. They claim by utilise professional development experience to show the advantage of utilizing pharmacists.\r\nThe Literature look into\r\nThe fiver articles that are reviewed focus main(prenominal)ly on scientific and technological experiments, which separate into three major(ip) areas. These three areas are communication, industry, and medicine. The writers Ã¢â¬Ës attitude toward the study of information technology and science, which are used in society, raised a very pointednessed intervention and neatly analysis on the proving of necessity as mother of invention. The sub-topics in all(prenominal) area finish master(prenominal) information involve in necessity of both individual and social points of view. Evidence is digestd only from a ll sources and can undefiledly be used to prove that necessity is the mother of invention as reasons and evidences. The purpose of the review is to make a intelligibly analysis on these six articles toward standardizedities and differences in their areas.\r\nThe firstly article, an overview of research and co-operation in advanced information technology by Arthur Cotterell, mostly represents in the area of communication. In this article, he discusses that the communication is primary(prenominal) to the next of society. Cotterell compares the different betwixt old and new modal(a)s of communication, which lead to the social necessity. He explained the medium intelligibly in expatiate and patronageed by employ a metropolis named Swindon (Cotterell, 1988, p.26), which wildly use lineament optic (medium) as his evidence. The successful of the eccentric optic is picked up to prove his rolls. In the second article by jenny Stewart, Ã¢â¬Å"Technological change and industri al locationÃ¢â¬Â, represents in industry area, which focus mainly in competition in market industry investment and scarcity of natural resource for industrial manufacturing. She points and explains the effect of competition and scarcity lead to the change of new system.\r\nThe Just-In-Time (JIT) system, which is a new information system, is used to compare how susceptibility it is with the old system. This system is the very successful system that alleviates reduce and eliminate cost, waste, and speed in production. She meditate self-propelled industry in Australia, which success in this system, as her evidence. The smaller, more technological advanced players, and accurate in the industry is the main point of the invention in this article. The third article, which is written by Fuglsang, in the article, he expresses the meaning circumstantialally of how and why invention is created (Fuglsang, 1993, pp.54-96). The main point of his article is to show that when the sequence i s running and population is increasing, they cause the old invention to become crisis and it is necessary to invent something new to put back the old. This article can be used as possibility and reason to explain and clearly assume all three areas of communication, industry, and medicine.\r\nThe phases of invention development are used to show the steps of scientific and technological remedyment. In each phase provide the evidence of the development of invention clearly since past fifty years when a manual turning- rail mien car was created to the automatic machine are used. He in like manner hold outs his evidence by using the development of American technology. He mentions that the maturement application of new technologies in society creates a need, so it is very important to studies more about technology network in political process. The by article written by Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold, they mainly represents in the area of medicine. This article focuses on medical necessity by compare the different between cosmetic surgery and reconstructive surgery. They alimentation the document that medical necessity in the area of surgery is really necessity by using Ã¢â¬Å"health plansÃ¢â¬Â (Singer and Bergthold, 2001, p.2162). This health plans is medical necessity standard that use permanently all over the world. They also input signal generally that social viewing among medical necessity in surgery is also included in some case.\r\nThe case of a cleft palate patient is used to analysis and discusses the different between cosmetic and reconstructive case. Then they argue and detain that medical necessity determinations involving the condition that proven to be especially businessatic not self-desirable. The fifth article written by Jesse B. Hall, Ã¢â¬Å"Use of the pulmonary artery catheter in critically ill patients: Was invention the mother of necessity?Ã¢â¬Â the article show that pulmonary artery catheters is necessary to most patients that involve in heart, lung, and seam chores. He analysed this technology from 10217 patients in 34 medical and surgical intensive care units (ICUs) in 1998. consort to Hall, the pulmonary artery is used in the case that no medicine can used to retrieve the sickness. He raises that this invention still has high risk, so this is very necessary to improve this invention to dish up critically ill patients and the process of its time to come evaluation.\r\n entirely issues in five sources, which written by Arthur Cotterell, jenny ass Stewart, Fuglsang, Jesse B. Hall and Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold, are considered very important to show the audition the historical and current signification of continuity about necessity as mother of invention in the term of scientific and technological experiment. This is because when the old invention is considered as the necessity for the emerging improvement, the continuing improvement to the new invention will be created. Arthur Cotterell wri tes about the use of communication medium during the past 10 years until the use of new medium today (Cotterell, 1988, p.26). His examples of twisted pair and fiber optic cable show the fact that the why the amplification of implementation of new medium are used by the change in society. It shows the sense of hearing clearly the distance between time in the past and present of social necessity. This article also talks about the rapidly incr loosenings of necessity which lead to the improvement of new medium in the future continuously. In the issue of jennet Stewart and Fuglsang have the similar area in the industry that also express the equivalent meaning of need in the industry. jenny Stewart shows the change in industry system by using automotive industry in Australia since 1990 (Stewart, 1992, p.124).\r\nFuglsang shows the systematisation phase (Fuglsang, 1993, p.56), which is wholeness of 4, phases in technological invention development. This phase analyses from the past 50 years of the development. twain Jenny Stewart and FuglsangÃ¢â¬â¢s article shows the change in the industry, which involves in commercial interests and competition. This article upholds to show the touch between competition and tutorial in the industry, which leads to the use of the new invention. In the rest of the issues from Jesse B. Hall, and Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold are involved in medicine area that involve in the surgery. Jesse B. Hall talks about the way outant of the use of pulmonary artery catheter (Hall, 2000, pp.2577-2578). This impression shows the need of cosmetic surgery among the people who have problem of the natural disable of the body and also explain the use of the invention to help solve the problem.\r\nSara Singer and Linda Bergthold article also help to shows that since from the past the meaning of medical necessity is mean only reconstruction to the normal state of patients. Both issues from Jesse B. Hall, and Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold come form the different medical case hardly they have similar thesis, which are medical necessity that lead to the invention of new medical invention. all(prenominal) the writers come from the different areas provided they have the alike meaning of their issues that the continuing of the time lead to the increase of need of invention in both new and improvement. So that their issues are strongly reward the statement that necessity creates the invention in the part of science and technological experimentation.\r\nThere are three articles which sure enough are the clinical of the writers when they present research their research cases and evidence to support their contrasts because these articles provide complete information and concomitants of the document. The first article, which is objective, by Arthur Cotterell supports and expresses the meaning of his argument clearly by using the complete examples and information of communication mediums (Cotterell, 1988, pp.1-27). H e shows the detail number of capacity, speed, range, and hooey made in each medium type clearly. He also compares the different in each medium by mathematical tally. This helps audience to slow understand the different even technical term. The second article, which is objective, from Fuglsang is objective because he has the acknowledgment from Massachusetts shew of Technology in the United States (Fuglsang, 1993, pp.54-96). His article and support evidences come from the case studies in Denmark, US, and Sweden. They are idiom and detail clearly on the influence of culture, organizational choices and institutional concerns through research.\r\nThe third article, which is objective, from Jenny Stewart is objective because her argument and sources come from the federalism research centre (Stewart, 1992, pp.110-192). She provides the information clearly in the example of automotive industry in Australia in percentage of profit, time, competitor, and increase of product output. The other two articles from Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold, and Jesse B. Hall are not objective because they provide the information too general. It is general because the information they provide is not particular in number of resolvent from the succession in medical sermon. Both of them show only the government issue from the invention by using only reasons, causes and make after treatment (Singer and Bergthold, 2001, 2162-2203).\r\nThis is because most of the article is the compact of the outlet of the cleft palate research, so that they besides mention about the need and future development, which ending from the succession of cleft palate surgery. Although they donÃ¢â¬â¢t provide completely information, the area that they work is in medicine area, which concentrates only the result of necessity. So that their article can express their main ideas easy and clearly understand by using reason, cause, and effect documents. By compare all the articles which each others, the i nformation that provided by the authors are enough to support the necessity of invention by using their specific details and information, research, reasons, causes, and effects. Their sources are considered as essential in relative and explaining the necessity as mother of information in scientific and technological experiment.\r\nThe exposition of data is clearly in all five sources because all data can be analyse to evaluate the need of the research topic in relation to scientific and technological experiment easily. The relationship between the necessity and the invention is linked in clearly understand. There are three different ways in their interpretation of data. The first way is represented by the article of Arthur Cotterell. He interprets his information by explain the detail of old communication medium and new communication medium in technical term and estimated calculation of speed, capacity, and range. For example, he explains that twisted-pair could carry 10Khz but if compare with fiber optic (Cotterell, 1988, p.26), fiber optic is faster than twisted-pair million times. He also clarifies the use of fiber optic that it uses in linking between two or more networks and twisted-pair uses in local ph one line. The second way is represented by Fuglsang and Jenny Stewart.\r\nThey interpret their sources by using the result of the time in the industrial development. They show the change and need since from the past and result of it in the present. The time between standardization and rationalisation is used by the author to show the relation of the improvement of the invention from first creation to the first development (Fuglsang, 1993, 56-56). The third way is represented by Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold, and Jesse B. Hall. They interpret their sources by using the result of their information, which is the specific in practice of medicine. They summarize the result of medication from the patient and use it to support their argument. The research result of the patient in a cleft palate case is used to analysis the term of medical necessity in the surgery area of medicine.\r\nThe result after the surgery is used to compare that the surgery is reconstructive surgery not cosmetic surgery. In comparison of all the writers, they interpret all data clearly. each the data are separated into three areas, which Arthur Cotterell is in communication area, Fuglsang and Jenny Stewart are in Industry area, and Singer S. and Linda Bergthold, and Hall are in medicine area. There interpretation of data can support each others and express their understanding in analyse that necessity as mother of invention clearly.\r\nThere are three articles that are conducted the research thoroughly in order to prove the points by the writers. The complete research could help the claim of research topic to become more strong and secure without being previse by other argument. Arthur Cotterell, Singer S. and Linda Bergthold, and Jenny Stewart are the wri ters who do their research thoroughly. Arthur Cotterell researches neatly on the information system research, which express all the meaning, material used, quality, and performance of each medium between communications clearly (Cotterell, 1988, p.15-27). He use a city name Swindon to do his research. This city is wide use in fiber optic and homocentric cable to link between communication which mean that it is a very efficiency sources to use on communication research. Singer S. and Linda Bergthold research on the medical necessity on surgery course. They use a patient who was born with cleft palate problem as their research (Singer and Bergthold, 2001, pp.2162-2180). They clearly research on the result before and after that patient grow the surgery.\r\nThey also research on the health plan of the medical standard and analyse it with medical theory as the reconstructive medication. Jenny Stewart researches on the Australia industry. She finds out that the reasons of necessity in in dustry come from the competition, which lead to the need of more flexible, fast, and efficiency technology(Stewart, 1992, p.124-192). This led her to find out the new system, Just-in-Time system, and research it on the Australia automotive industry. She has the result of how efficiency and profitability it is. The other sources from Fuglsang and Jesse B. Hall are not researched thoroughly because they get the information from general source directly without fully detail.\r\nFuglsang picks up the history to speak to support the argument but the detail on his jot seem not clear on details and analysis. From Arthur Cotterell, Singer S., and Linda Bergthold, and Jenny Stewart research, they are very to understand their point of view from their research and directly connect audience to the understanding. The clearly details and information of their research link their ideas to the necessity as mother of invention in the scientific and technological experiment.\r\nFrom five sources, ther e are four sources that provide practical and realistic suggestion by the writers. The practical and realistic of suggestion can help the article to become more clear and ease of understanding. First is Jenney Stewart, she suggests that future of the industry needs smaller, more technological advanced players, and accuracy (Stewart, 1992, p.125). The writer suggestion shows that her study is very important to the use of technology for the future use. Her suggestion is proved by her comparative of old technology and new technology that show the change of size, quality, quantity, and speed. Second is Arthur Cotterell, he suggested that by the help of computer-aided design would help to avoid a propagate of tentative material cutting. The writer suggestion shows that his study is very important for the industry to increase their performance of the system. This is very useful in showing the relationship between necessity and invention.\r\nThird is Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold, they suggest that cosmetic or treatments intended primarily to improve appearance is exclude in medical necessity standard (Singer and Bergthold, 2001, p.2162). The writersÃ¢â¬â¢ suggestions are used for people to understand that the purpose of surgery is different in some case because some case could count as personal desirable such as cosmetic. This shows the relation between medical necessity and invention clearly. They support their suggestion by evaluate the cleft palate in the medical necessity term and health plans.\r\nForth is Fuglsang, he suggests that the growing application of new technologies in society creates a need to deputize a more offensive and organized map to technology studies networks in the political process. This suggestion shows that his detail on study is very important for who is interested in technological development. The writer proves his suggestion by evaluate and show the need over past 50 years of the development of information and communication techn ologies in four phases (Fuglsang, 1993, p.55-58). From all the suggestion of all writers could help the audience to know what are the main interests in on the articles of the writers, which are very useful.\r\nThere is no surely use of expert effect from all the writers. They havenÃ¢â¬â¢t pick up any expert assessment but they fit to use another people and place from other sources as their expert opinion. The expert opinion on the article of Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold is not mentioned clearly. They use the term physician as their expert opinion to help support their argument in consider assume medication for a patient, such as treatment intended primarily to improve appearance. As same as Sara Singer and Linda Bergthold, Jenny Stewart doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t use expert opinion but she uses other opinion, Lamming (1998), who is one from her source. Lamming talks about the industry remaining efficaciously in Ã¢â¬Å"stress periodÃ¢â¬Â. This opinion helps audience understand the be st period of industry development.\r\nIn the article of Fuglsang L., this writer use Sloth Andersen and Slavo Radosevic, who are not mention clearly who are they, as the expert opinion. They talk about an innovation forum, which help to support the writer about the change of technology during a century so that the view of technological change would be see as the important to the new invention. The rest of the writers do not have any expert opinion to support their argument. But in the case of their writing, the support of expert opinion is not important because the evidences and examples are enough to call as expert opinion in the case of science and technological experiment.\r\nIn conclusion, all of the five articles are clearly review, analyse, and can be reliable. All the sources talks in the areas of communication, industry, and medicine by using variety of evidence and alternative ways of using expert opinion. The objectivity of each writers are fix in all sources and the inte rpretation are very clear. The thoroughness of treatment of the subject matter could confidentially be used from the analysis. Each suggestion from all writers are mentioned mostly point to the future use and analysis. For come on research the study of more variety of necessity in creating invention must be more research and study to express their meaning astray in different area. This could help to look and analysis more widely in today and future development of invention. But the main point of all reviews is to find out the best ways to the result of successful future.\r\nThe Limitations of research\r\nThis research limited by certain factors. The research was limited by some limitations of the topic. The personal factor was caused by the research topic is not directly related to the past experience and educational background but mostly related to the philosophical area which is not computer study. This caused the lack of some specific or direct information that could help anal yze the topic more efficiency. another(prenominal) reason is the topic question is some kind of question that can dissolver in two ways that people could agree and disagree depends one the personal opinion so that the degree of the answer to the question is not strong enough. This caused some part of the argument easy to be counter by some situation in both side of agree and disagree.\r\nThe suggestions for future study\r\nThe problems of limitation of research need some suggestions to be made for future study. Firstly to solve the problem of lacking in specific education background, this research needs the specific education of philosophy and psychology to help provide more specific and strong support information for the term of human necessity. This can help to improve the supported argument of the essay to become more reliable. This future study can do by focus on the continuous of inventions in each area in term of psychology, which will be very helpful in this research. The re search doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t need to find out the started point or the first creation of the invention because this essay was only focusing in present invention.\r\nSecond future study is by searching more support from the expert opinion to help solve the limitation of unstable argument due to the meaning of research topic, which is too wide in general. The more researched findings of supported expert opinions can strongly help to support the argument and make the research become more reliable. This could be done by focus on the expert opinions that involve in the succession in each area of industry, medicine, and communication. The success of expert opinions is more reliable and couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be counter by other argument easily. In conclusion, if all suggestions of future study are completely finished the research will not have any infinite spaces to be counter by other counter argument.\r\n'